Android Inc., founded in Palo Alto, California ,united states in October 2003 by Andy Rubin[co-founder of danger ],rich miner[co-founder of wildfire communication  Inc.],nick sears[once VP at T-Mobile],  and Chris white[headed design and interface development  at web TV] to develop.


It is a open source software platform and operating system for mobile devices. Based on the Linux kernel. Developed by Google and later the Open Handset Alliance (OHA).

Allows writing managed code in the Java language.

Android has its own virtual machine i.e. DVM (Dalvik Virtual Machine), which is used for executing the android applicant. Google purchased the initial developer of the software, android incorporated in 2005.

Open Handset Alliance

The open handset alliance(OHA) is a business alliance of firm to develop open  standard for mobile devices. Devoted to adv  cancing open standards for mobile devices. Develop technologies that will significantly lower the cost of developing and distributing mobile devices and services.


The software stack is split into Four Layers::

  • The application layer
  • The application framework
  • The libraries and runtime
  • The kernel

The architecture is based on the Linux2.6 kernel.

This layer is core of android architecture. It provides service like power management, memory management, security etc.

It helps in software or hardware binding for better communication.

Activity  manager:-It manages the lifecycle of applications. It enable proper management of all the activities. All the activities are controlled by activity manager.

Resource manager:-It provides access to non-code resources such as graphics etc.

Notification manager:-It enables all applications to display custom alerts in status bar.

Location manager:– It fires alerts when user enters or leaves a specified geographical location.

Package manager:-It is use to retrieve the data about installed packages on device.

Window manager:-It is use to create views and layouts.

Telephony manager:-It is use to handle settings of network connection and all information about services on device.

Applications Layer

It includes the home application the contacts application , the browser, and apps. It is the most upper layer in android architecture.

All the applications like camera, Google maps, browser,sms,calendars,contacts are native applications. These applications works with end user with the help of application framework to operate.


  1.  Background Wi-Fi location still runs even when
  2.  Wi-Fi  is turned off
  3. Developer logging and analyzing enhancements
  4. It is optimized for mobile devices.
  5. It enables reuse and replacement of components.
  6. Java support ,media support, multi touch, video calling,multi tasking ,voice based  features, screen capture, camera ,bluetooth,gps,compass and accelerometer,4G


  1. The ability for anyone to customize the Google Android platform
  2. It gives you better notification.
  3. It lets you choose your hardware.
  4. It has better app market(1,80,000 application)
  5. A more mature platform
  6.  With the support of many applications, the user can change the screen display.
  7. With Google chrome you can open many window at once.
  8.  Supports all Google services: Android operating system supports all of Google services ranging from Gmail to Google reader. All Google services can you have with one operating system, namely Android.


  1. Android Market is less control of the manager, sometimes there are malware.
  2. Wasteful Batteries, This is because the OS is a lot of “process” in the background causing the battery quickly drains.
  3. Sometimes slow device company issued an official version of Android your own .
  4. Extremely inconsistence in design among apps.
  5. Very unstable and often hang or crash.

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